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Endocannabinoid System

Endocannabinoid System 

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the vertebrate central nervous system (including the brain)

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a widespread neuromodulatory system that plays important roles in central nervous system (CNS) development, synaptic plasticity, and the response to endogenous and environmental insults.

The two main receptors of the endocannabinoid system are CB1 and CB2. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be utilized to break down the fatty acids amide hydrolase, increasing the overall functioning of the endocannabinoid system.

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The ECS

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as an important neuromodulatory system over the last twenty-five years. Relevant to the topic of this special issue of Biological Psychiatry, perturbations of the ECS are involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia.

The CB(1) and CB(2) receptors serve critical roles within the body. Sometimes, however, fatty acid amide hydrolase -- an enzyme -- binds to each receptor type, breaking them down, and limiting the effectiveness of the receptors.

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Cannabinoid Receptors

The two main receptors of the endocannabinoid system are CB1 and CB2. Cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors) If eCBs are the messengers, then cannabinoid receptors are the guards posted at the city wall, waiting for the messengers. Receptors sit on cell surfaces, waiting for specific neurotransmitters to bind to them.

Depending on the type of cell the receptor is on, the downstream effect will rapidly impact immunity, sensation, mood, and even consciousness. We have CB receptors throughout our bodies, guarding a wide variety of cell types & responses.

CB1 receptors are essential for a healthy functioning brain and are one of the most common receptors in the entire nervous system. Depending on what region of the brain they are located in, they can be moderators of your memory, mood, motor function, or your perception of pain. These brain receptors are also responsible for the psychoactive properties of cannabis when THC binds to them.

CB2 receptors are most often found on the cells of our immune system. They help moderate inflammation and our immune response to pathogens. If you use cannabis products to combat conditions of an overactive immune system (i.e. arthritis, asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders or digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease) you can thank your CB2 receptors.

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CBG or Cannabigerols 

Cannabigerol is one of more than 120 identified cannabinoid compounds found in the plant genus Cannabis. Cannabigerol is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid, the parent molecule from which other cannabinoids are synthesized. Cannabigerol is a minor constituent of cannabis.

Formula: C21H30O2 Solubility in water: insoluble Other names: CBD, cannabidiolum, (−)-cannabidiol Melting point: 66 °C (151 °F) cannabigerol (CBG), a lesser known cannabinoid with emerging research on its medical benefits for specific systems. One of those cannabinoids is Cannabigerol, or CBG. First discovered by researchers in the 1960's, CBG is the precursor from which all other.

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CBC or Cannabichromenes

CBC, or cannabichromene, was once an incredibly abundant cannabinoid, especially in Indian and tropical cannabis. Modern breeding practices have focused on CBD and THC, so CBC concentrations have fallen, but CBC has always been one of the Big Six cannabinoids. Like THC and CBD, CBCa is formed from CBGa. Cannabichromene, also called cannabichrome, cannanbichromene, pentylcannabichromene or cannabinochromene, is one of the hundreds of cannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant, and is therefore a phytocannabinoid.

CBN%20or%20Cannabinol

CBN or Cannabinol

Cannabinol (CBN) is a non-psychoactive component naturally found in trace amounts of the cannabis plant. It is produced in two ways it is mildly psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis, and is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol.

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Endogenous Cannabinoids

Endogenous Cannabinoids The ECS is comprised of endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), cannabinoid receptors, and the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids (Fig. 1). Each of these components will be introduced in this chapter, with an emphasis on their potential involvement in psychosis. 

The Endocannabinoid System has emerged as an important neuromodulatory system over the last twenty-five years. Relevant to the topic of this special issue of Biological Psychiatry, perturbations of the ECS are involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. The ECS is comprised of endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), cannabinoid receptors, and the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids (Fig. 1). Each of these components will be introduced in this chapter, with an emphasis on their potential involvement in psychosis.